Most Common Types of Skin Disorders and Diseases

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The largest organ that’s found in the body, in terms of surface area and weight, is the skin. It measures around two square-yards and 6-9 pounds. This organ is mainly used for protection purposes because it’s responsible for separating the internal organs from the outside. However, the skin is also prone to infections. This article provides a detailed overview of the most common skin disorders and diseases.

Table of Contents

  1. What Are Skin Disorders and Diseases?
  2. 5 Most common skin disorders
  3. How to Prevent Skin Disorders and Diseases

What Are Skin Disorders And Diseases?

These are conditions that inflame, clog, or irritate the skin and cause a wide range of symptoms. Skin disorders and diseases may result in swellings that are hard or filled with fluid, burning sensation, redness, and itching. They are normally caused by environmental factors, allergic reactions, hormonal changes, or genetics.

Most Common Skin Disorders

Skin conditions come in various form. It can be mild, severe, occasional flare-ups or a chronic disease that does not have cure. These diseases may be visible as small patches or affect large parts of the skin. The most common types of skin disorders include:

Acne

Acne Symptoms

 

It’s one of the most common skin disorders and diseases that affects people of all ages.  Acne usually affects the oil glands found underneath the skin causing the development of pimples. This skin disorder has affected almost 80 percent of the global population at certain points.

Acne Causes

This skin disorder occurs when the skin pores are blocked with bacteria, oil, or dead skin. Note that every skin pore contains a follicle i.e. skin opening which has sebaceous gland and hair. The gland is responsible for releasing sebum which lubricates and softens the skin. Acne can occur as a result of:

  • Overproduction of sebum
  • A buildup of bacteria in the skin pores 
  • Accumulation of dead skin cells in the pores

Acne Symptoms

Pimples are the most common symptoms of acne and they are normally black or white i.e. blackheads or whiteheads. These two are also known as comedowns. Other acne symptoms include:

  • Cysts: Large lumps that are found under the skin’s surface. They are normally painful and contain pus.
  • Pustules: Red pimples which are small in size. The tip of these pustules may contain pus.
  • Papules: Raised red bumps which occur as a result of inflamed follicles.
  • Nodules: Hard painful lumps under the skin’s surface.

Acne Treatment

Home care remedy:

  • Daily cleansing
  • Using non-comedogenic makeup

Medication:

  • Sulfur
  • Salicylic acid
  • Benzyl peroxide

Other procedures:

  • Chemical peel
  • Dermabrasion
  • Photodynamic therapy

Eczema

Eczema Symptoms

 

This is a long-term skin condition that’s also known as a topic dermatitis. Eczema can affect various parts of the body. At the moment, there are no tests which can be carried to diagnose this disease and doctors usually rely on you and your family’s information.

Eczema Causes

The non-contagious disease can be inherited. Most children risk getting eczema in case one of their parents has it. Note that if both parents have an atopic disease, then the child is at a greater risk of developing this skin condition. Other factors may be related to the environment and they include:

  • Allergens such as pollens, pets, dust mites, dandruff, and mold.
  • Irritants like shampoos, soaps, disinfectants, detergents etc.
  • Microbes line bacteria, certain fungi, and viruses.
  • Hormonal changes
  • Protein-rich foods such as dairy products and eggs
  • Extreme temperature changes

Eczema Symptoms

The symptoms of eczema may vary from person to person depending on age. It normally occurs in infants and causes them to have scaly dry patches on the skin which are very itchy. Research shows that most people usually develop atopic dermatitis before they attain 5 years.

Under 2 year’s symptoms:

  • Rashes on cheeks and the scalp
  • Rashes that leak fluid
  • Extremely itchy rashes

Symptoms for Children over 2 years to puberty:

  • Rashes behind the creases found on knees or elbows
  • Rashes on neck, ankles, and wrists
  • Bumpy light or dark rashes

Symptoms in adults:

  • Extremely itchy rashes
  • Rashes that cover most parts of the body
  • Rashes on the creases of knees and elbows or the neck’s nape
  • Rashes that cause skin infections

Eczema Treatment

Although it is one of the most common skin disorders and diseases, eczema does not have cure. The affected individual can only carry out skin management to prevent the symptoms from flaring up. Treatment options include:

Home Care:

  • Daily moisturizing
  • Lukewarm baths
  • Wearing clothes with soft or cotton fabric
  • Using mild soap or cleanser
  • Avoiding rapid temperature changes

Medications:

  • Antihistamines
  • Antibiotics
  • Corticosteroids
  • Topical ointments and creams
  • Phototherapy

Skin Cancer

Skin Cancer

 

This is an abnormal growth of the skin cells. Skin cancer is very common and it can also occur in certain areas on the body which aren’t exposed to sunlight rays frequently. Skin cancer can be melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.

Skin Cancer Causes

It’s normally caused when the skin is exposed to the harmful UV rays. You can reduce your chances of developing this complex skin issue by minimizing your daily sunlight exposure.  Other causes include:

  • Lights that are used in tanning beds
  • Exposure to radioactive substances
  • Exposure to drinking water which contains arsenic
  • Smoking
  • Exposure to vinyl chloride and tar chemicals

Skin Cancer Symptoms

Basal Cell Carcinoma:

  • A flesh colored, or a brown scar which appears as a flat lesion
  • Bleeding pore which heals and then returns
  • A waxy/pearly bump 

Squamous Cell Carcinoma:

  • A flat lesion which has a scaly and crusted surface
  • A red nodule that’s firm

Melanoma:

  • A mole which frequently changes size, feel, and color
  • A painful lesion which burns or itches
  • A brown spot that has darker speckles
  • Dark lesions on body parts like toes, vagina, soles, fingertips, the mucosal membranes, anus etc.

Skin Cancer Treatment

Treatment options depend on type, depth, and size. Surgical removal of the tumor is a treatment option that’s commonly used i.e. the Mohs surgeryHowever, if the tumors have advanced and reached the lymph nodes then the doctor may administer:

  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Targeted therapy

Anti-Aging

Anti-Aging

Anti-Aging is normally occurs as a person grows old. Aging, as the name suggests happens because of an increase in age. Although it’s usually experienced by older persons, it might also happen to children who are still young due to certain medical conditions.

Causes of Anti-Aging

  • Increase in age
  • Genetics
  • Stress

Anti-Aging Symptoms

  • Wrinkles
  • Loss of memory
  • Change in posture (slightly stooped)
  • Gray hair
  • Loss of vision
  • Weak immunity
  • Loss of earing abilities
  • Thin skin

Aging Treatment

It’s a progressive disease that usually occurs until you reach the end of your life. However, this condition can be controlled by the use of anti-ageing methods such as laser treatments, different anti-ageing discovery and eating lots of veggies and fruits. Additionally, avoid smoking and engage in intensive mental and physical activities nearly every day.

Psoriasis

Psoriasis Symptoms

 

It is a chronic skin issue that regarded as an autoimmune disease. Psoriasis causes a massive buildup of the skin cells which then cause the skin’s surface to scale. This skin condition occurs because of an overproduction of the skin cells.

Psoriasis Causes

As stated above, this skin condition is caused when the body decides to enhance the production of skin cells causing overproduction. The reason why it’s classified as an autoimmune disease is because it attacks the immune system. Psoriasis might also be caused by genetics.

Psoriasis Symptoms

  • Sore or itchy skin
  • Stiff and swollen joints
  • Rigged/pitted/thickened nails
  • A dry and cracked skin which may be bleeding
  • Scaling spots that are small
  • Red kin patches that are covered with silvery and thick scales

Psoriasis Treatment

This skin issue doesn’t have cure at the moment. The treatment options which are available are meant to reduce the occurrence of scales and inflammation. Besides that, they help to minimize the occurrence of plaques and rapid development of the skin cells. Treatment options include:

Topical treatments:

  • Moisturizers
  • Anthralin
  • Topical retinoids and corticosteroids
  • Salicylic acid

Systemic medications:

  • Biologics
  • Methotrexate 
  • Retinoids and
  • Cyclosporine
  • Note that light therapy may also be used in this case.

How to Prevent Skin Disorders and Diseases

Most chronic skin disorders don’t have cure. To be on the safe side, you need to implement a strict routine that can help you prevent common skin disorders and diseases. Some of the techniques that you can use include:

  • Use water and soap to wash your hands always
  • Washing your hands with an alcohol-based sanitizer in case there is no clean water and soap
  • Avoid picking or squeezing sores because you will worsen the spread of infection
  • Cover both contagious and non-contagious skin infections
  • Avoid sharing things such as toothbrushes, soap, razors, towels, and other topical preparations such as gels, deodorants, etc.
  • Use hot water and detergent to wash your towels after every use
  • Your personal or shared workout equipment and gear should be washed and disinfected e.g. yoga mats
  • Every clothing should be laundered after every use
  • If you have an open wound or sores, avoid using saunas, steam rooms, or cold tubs.
  • Drink lots of water for a well-nourished and healthy skin
  • Limit your exposure to sunshine by wearing clothes that cover most parts of your body, large hats, and apply sunscreen every time you head out
  • Refrain from touching your face using fingers.
  • Do not have facial contact with objects which have been used by other people e.g. telephone receivers

Bottom Line

There are numerous types of skin diseases and the above-mentioned are the most common. Though some of them still lack cure, they can be effectively managed to prevent flare-ups which can be very intense. To ensure that you don’t end up contracting a skin disease or disorder, always take care of your skin by using preventive measures.

Sources

  • https://www.everydayhealth.com/skin-and-beauty/skin-care-101/protect-your-skin.aspx
  • https://www.health.ny.gov/diseases/communicable/athletic_skin_infections/hand_washing.htm
  • https://medicine.uiowa.edu/dermatology/education/clinical-skin-disease-images
  • https://www.aad.org/public/diseases
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